difficulty_1_target can be different for various ways to measure difficulty.Traditionally, it represents a hash where the leading 32 bits are zero and the rest are one (this is known as "pool difficulty" or "pdiff").The Bitcoin protocol represents targets as a custom floating point type with limited precision; as a result, Bitcoin clients often approximate difficulty based on this (this is known as "bdiff").
Here's a fast way to calculate bitcoin difficulty. It uses a modified Taylor series for the logarithm (you can see tutorials on flipcode and wikipedia) and relies on logs to transform the difficulty calculation:
Here's an even faster way to compute the difficulty, using std::ldexp(). This particular function lets you scale by a power of two almost for free, by directly adjusting the exponent on the floating point number. Thus, the difficulty calculation gets reduced to a couple integer arithmetic steps, single floating point divide, and a single scale-by-power-of-2.
The difficulty is adjusted every 2016 blocks based on the time it took to find the previous 2016 blocks. At the desired rate of one block each 10 minutes, 2016 blocks would take exactly two weeks to find. If the previous 2016 blocks took more than two weeks to find, the difficulty is reduced. If they took less than two weeks, the difficulty is increased. The change in difficulty is in proportion to the amount of time over or under two weeks the previous 2016 blocks took to find.
The difficulty is set such that the previous 2016 blocks would have been found at the rate of one every 10 minutes, so we were calculating (D * 2**48 / 0xffff) hashes in 600 seconds. That means the hash rate of the network was
Objective: To compare age-adjusted and ethnic differences in prevalences of sleep difficulty at various stages of the menopausal transition and to determine the relative contribution of other factors, including vasomotor symptoms, sociodemographics, and psychological and physical health factors, to self-reported sleep difficulty in middle-aged women.
Design: A community-based survey of women's health and menopausal symptoms was conducted between November 1995 and October 1997 at each of the seven US sites participating in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. A multiethnic sample of 12,603 Caucasian, African American, Chinese, Japanese, and Hispanic women aged 40 to 55 years was categorized into six groups: premenopausal, early perimenopausal, late perimenopausal, naturally postmenopausal, surgically postmenopausal, and postmenopausal receiving hormone replacement therapy. The women were asked whether they had experienced difficulty sleeping in the past 2 weeks.
Results: Difficulty sleeping was reported by 38%. Age-adjusted rates were highest in the late perimenopausal (45.4%) and surgically postmenopausal (47.6%) groups. Among ethnic groups, rates ranged from 28% in Japanese women to 40% in Caucasian women. In the multivariate analysis, menopausal status was significantly associated with difficulty sleeping. Ethnicity, vasomotor and psychological symptoms, self-perceived health and health behaviors, arthritis, and education also were significantly associated with difficulty sleeping.
Conclusions: These results suggest that stage of the menopausal transition, independent of other potential explanatory factors, is associated with self-reported sleep difficulty. Older age per se was not significantly associated with difficulty sleeping.
The aim of this study was to produce a treatment difficulty index (TDI) for unerupted maxillary canines. Thirty treated cases, each with an unerupted unilateral maxillary canine, were graded by 14 consultant orthodontists in terms of perceived alignment difficulty, and the four main factors which had contributed to each grade were listed in order of importance. The relationship between the grade and the contributory factors was then examined using regression analysis, and weightings were derived. These were applied to each factor, in order to derive a difficulty score total for each case. Linear regression analysis of difficulty scores against consultant grades produced an R2 value of 54.7 per cent using the original equation and an R2 of 52.3 per cent using values rounded to the nearest half. Both indicated a moderate level of agreement between allocated difficulty grade and calculated difficulty scores. The index provides a useful treatment planning aid for the management of impacted maxillary canines.
Many U.S. adults have trouble affording health care costs. While lower income and uninsured adults are the most likely to report this, those with health insurance and those with higher incomes are not immune to the high cost of medical care. About half of U.S. adults say that it is very or somewhat difficult for them to afford their health care costs (47%). Among those under age 65, uninsured adults are much more likely to say affording health care costs is difficult (85%) compared to those with health insurance coverage (47%). Additionally, at least six in ten Black adults (60%) and Hispanic adults (65%) report difficulty affording health care costs compared to about four in ten White adults (39%). Adults in households with annual incomes under $40,000 are more than three times as likely as adults in households with incomes over $90,000 to say it is difficult to afford their health care costs (69% v. 21%). (Source: KFF Health Care Debt Survey: Feb.-Mar. 2022)
For many U.S. adults, prescription drugs are another component of their routine care. Among those currently taking prescription drugs, one in four say they have difficulty affording their cost, including about one third who take four or more prescription drugs (33%) and those in households with annual incomes under $40,000 (32%), and four in ten Hispanic adults. (Source: KFF Health Tracking Poll: October 2021)
There is no standard definition for difficulty breathing. Some people feel breathless with only mild exercise (for example, climbing stairs), even though they don't have a medical condition. Others may have advanced lung disease, but may never feel short of breath. Breathing difficulty is a subjective feeling; only the person feeling it can decide if it is present.
Sometimes, mild breathing difficulty may be normal and is not a cause for concern. A very stuffy nose is one example. Strenuous exercise, especially when you do not exercise often, is another example.
If breathing difficulty is new or is getting worse, it may be due to a serious problem. Though many causes are not dangerous and are easily treated, contact your health care provider for any breathing difficulty.
The provider will examine you. You'll be asked about your medical history and symptoms. Questions may include how long you've had difficulty breathing and when it started. You may also be asked if anything worsens it and if you make grunting or wheezing sounds when breathing.
Interestingly, fans will see that only Assisted, Standard, and Hardcore options are available when initially choosing a difficulty option for their first playthrough. Standard and Hardcore are particularly intriguing because they recommend fans who have not previously played Resident Evil 4 choose Standard, while fans who have previously played Resident Evil 4 choose Hardcore mode. This suggests that both games are similar enough that players will be familiar with most of its difficulties. Rather, Professional mode is its own difficulty option entirely and has brewed some unfortunate discourse.
However, in the same way that some fans believe playing on a New Game save file on Professional is supposedly the only way to make Resident Evil 4 remake harder, the Elden Ring Mimic Tear mirrors this discourse. If New Game Plus is meant to help alleviate tedious or tense encounters players experience in a subsequent run, but is too middling or makes the player too overpowered at any difficulty, then it hardly seems like there is any place for New Game Plus to have any merit in Resident Evil 4.
Swallowing difficulty is the inability to swallow foods or liquids with ease. People who have a hard time swallowing may choke on their food or liquid when trying to swallow. Dysphagia is the medical name for difficulty swallowing.
According to the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD), there are 50 pairs of muscles and nerves used to help you swallow. In other words, there are lots of things that can go wrong and lead to problems swallowing. Some conditions related to difficulty swallowing include:
The Montana Department of Public Health and Human Services summarizes which foods to eat and which to avoid if you have swallowing difficulty. Here are some of its recommendations for foods to avoid or use only when carefully prepared:
Practising simple visual tasks leads to a dramatic improvement in performing them. This learning is specific to the stimuli used for training. We show here that the degree of specificity depends on the difficulty of the training conditions. We find that the pattern of specificities maps onto the pattern of receptive field selectivities along the visual pathway. With easy conditions, learning generalizes across orientation and retinal position, matching the spatial generalization of higher visual areas. As task difficulty increases, learning becomes more specific with respect to both orientation and position, matching the fine spatial retinotopy exhibited by lower areas. Consequently, we enjoy the benefits of learning generalization when possible, and of fine grain but specific training when necessary. The dynamics of learning show a corresponding feature. Improvement begins with easy cases (when the subject is allowed long processing times) and only subsequently proceeds to harder cases. This learning cascade implies that easy conditions guide the learning of hard ones. Taken together, the specificity and dynamics suggest that learning proceeds as a countercurrent along the cortical hierarchy. Improvement begins at higher generalizing levels, which, in turn, direct harder-condition learning to the subdomain of their lower-level inputs. As predicted by this reverse hierarchy model, learning can be effective using only difficult trials, but on condition that learning onset has previously been enabled. A single prolonged presentation suffices to initiate learning. We call this single-encounter enabling effect 'eureka'. 041b061a72