# How to Download the Ebook of Physicochemical Properties of Molten Slags and Glasses by E T Turkdogan; Metals Society

## Download ebook Physicochemical properties of molten slags and glasses by E T Turkdogan; Metals Society

Molten slags and glasses are complex mixtures of oxides that are formed during high-temperature metallurgical processes. They play a crucial role in the extraction, refining, alloying, casting, shaping, and recycling of metals and alloys. The physicochemical properties of these materials, such as viscosity, density, surface tension, electrical conductivity, and optical properties, determine their behavior and interactions with other phases, such as metals, gases, refractories, and ceramics. Therefore, understanding and controlling these properties is essential for optimizing the quality, efficiency, energy consumption, environmental impact, and safety of various metallurgical operations.

## Download ebook Physicochemical properties of molten slags and glasses by E T Turkdogan; Metals Socie

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However, studying the physicochemical properties of molten slags and glasses is not an easy task. These materials are highly corrosive, reactive, opaque, heterogeneous, non-ideal, and non-stoichiometric. They exhibit a wide range of compositions, temperatures, pressures, atmospheres, and phases. They also undergo various transformations, such as melting, solidification, crystallization, dissolution, oxidation, reduction, slagging, foaming, emulsification, flotation, entrainment, infiltration, erosion, corrosion, slag-metal reactions, slag-gas reactions, slag-refractory reactions, slag-ceramic reactions, and so on. Therefore, measuring and modeling these properties requires advanced techniques, theories, and methods that can account for these complexities.

In this article, we will review a classic book that provides a comprehensive overview of the physicochemical properties of molten slags and glasses. The book is titled "Physicochemical Properties of Molten Slags and Glasses" by E T Turkdogan, and it was published by The Metals Society in 1983. The book is based on the author's extensive research experience in this field, and it covers both theoretical and experimental aspects of various properties, such as thermodynamics, viscosity, density, surface tension, electrical conductivity, and optical properties. The book also provides numerous examples, data, tables, figures, diagrams, equations, and references that illustrate the applications of these properties to various metallurgical systems and processes.

## Overview of the book

The author of the book is E T Turkdogan, who was a distinguished professor of metallurgy and materials science at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He was also a fellow of the American Society for Metals, the American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers, the Iron and Steel Institute of Japan, and the Royal Society of London. He was an internationally recognized expert in the field of molten slags and glasses, and he published over 300 papers and 10 books on this topic. He passed away in 2006 at the age of 84.

The book consists of six chapters that cover the following topics:

Chapter 1: Thermodynamics of molten slags and glasses

Chapter 2: Viscosity of molten slags and glasses

Chapter 3: Density of molten slags and glasses

Chapter 4: Surface tension of molten slags and glasses

Chapter 5: Electrical conductivity of molten slags and glasses

Chapter 6: Optical properties of molten slags and glasses

The book is organized and structured in a logical and systematic way. Each chapter begins with an introduction that explains the importance and relevance of the property under consideration. Then, it reviews the basic concepts and definitions that are necessary for understanding the property. Next, it discusses the thermodynamic models and methods that are used to calculate or estimate the property. After that, it describes the measurement techniques and data that are available for the property. Finally, it presents the models and correlations that are used to predict the property for various compositions, temperatures, pressures, atmospheres, and phases.

## Summary of the main chapters

### Chapter 1: Thermodynamics of molten slags and glasses

This chapter deals with the thermodynamics of molten slags and glasses, which is the foundation for understanding their physicochemical properties. Thermodynamics is the science that studies the relationships between heat, work, energy, entropy, and equilibrium in a system. Thermodynamics can be used to determine the stability, phase equilibria, chemical reactions, activities, fugacities, partial pressures, Gibbs energies, enthalpies, entropies, heat capacities, and heats of formation of molten slags and glasses.

The chapter introduces the basic concepts and definitions of thermodynamics, such as system, state, process, cycle, phase, component, degree of freedom, intensive and extensive variables, equilibrium criteria, reversible and irreversible processes, first law, second law, third law, zeroth law, state functions, path functions, and so on. It also explains the thermodynamic models and methods that are used to describe the behavior of molten slags and glasses, such as ideal solution model, regular solution model, quasi-chemical model, associate model, ionic model, statistical mechanical model, and so on. It also discusses the applications of these models and methods to various systems and processes, such as binary, ternary, and multicomponent systems, oxidation-reduction equilibria, slag-metal equilibria, slag-gas equilibria, slag-refractory equilibria, slag-ceramic equilibria, and so on.

### Chapter 2: Viscosity of molten slags and glasses

This chapter deals with the viscosity of molten slags and glasses, which is one of the most important properties for their flow behavior and transport phenomena. Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid to deformation or flow under an applied shear stress. Viscosity affects the fluidity, mixing, stirring, pouring, casting, shaping, molding, splashing, foaming, emulsification, flotation, entrainment, infiltration, erosion, corrosion, slag-metal reactions, slag-gas reactions, slag-refractory reactions, slag-ceramic reactions, and so on.

The chapter reviews the factors affecting viscosity, such as composition, temperature, pressure, atmosphere, phase structure (liquid or glass), crystallization (homogeneous or heterogeneous), and so on. It also describes the measurement techniques and data that are available for viscosity, such as capillary viscometer (rotating or stationary), rotating bob viscometer (parallel plate or cone-and-plate), oscillating cup viscometer (torsional or vibrational), falling sphere viscometer (Stokes' law or terminal velocity), beam bending viscometer (static or dynamic), parallel plate viscometer (constant load or constant displacement), and so on. It also presents the models and correlations that are used to predict viscosity for various compositions, temperatures, pressures, atmospheres, and phases. such as Arrhenius equation (activation energy or pre-exponential factor) , Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation (freezing point or glass transition temperature) , Weymann equation (molar volume or molar mass) , Eyring equation (activation entropy or activation volume) , and so on.

### Chapter 3: Density of molten slags and glasses

This chapter deals with the density of molten slags and glasses, which is another important property for their flow behavior and transport phenomena. Density is a measure of the mass per unit volume of a substance. Density affects the buoyancy, settling, separation, distribution, inclusion removal, heat transfer, mass transfer, and slag-metal reactions of molten slags and glasses.

The chapter reviews the factors affecting density, such as composition, temperature, pressure, atmosphere, phase structure (liquid or glass), crystallization (homogeneous or heterogeneous), and so on. It also describes the measurement techniques and data that are available for density, such as pycnometer (Archimedes' principle or gas expansion) , dilatometer (linear expansion or volume expansion) , pendant drop method (surface tension or shape analysis) , sessile drop method (contact angle or shape analysis) , X-ray absorption method (attenuation coefficient or absorption edge) , and so on. It also presents the models and correlations that are used to predict density for various compositions, temperatures, pressures, atmospheres, and phases. such as linear additivity rule (molar volume or mass fraction) , quadratic additivity rule (molar volume or mass fraction) , Clausius-Clapeyron equation (thermal expansion coefficient or heat capacity) , Tait equation (isothermal compressibility or bulk modulus) , and so on.

### Chapter 4: Surface tension of molten slags and glasses

This chapter deals with the surface tension of molten slags and glasses, which is a key property for their interfacial phenomena and surface reactions. Surface tension is a measure of the energy required to increase the surface area of a liquid by a unit amount. Surface tension affects the wetting, spreading, adhesion, cohesion, capillarity, foaming, emulsification, flotation, entrainment, infiltration, erosion, corrosion, slag-metal reactions, slag-gas reactions, slag-refractory reactions, slag-ceramic reactions, and so on.

The chapter reviews the factors affecting surface tension, such as composition, temperature, pressure, atmosphere, phase structure (liquid or glass), crystallization (homogeneous or heterogeneous), oxidation state, slag basicity, slag acidity, and so on. It also describes the measurement techniques and data that are available for surface tension, such as maximum bubble pressure method (Laplace equation or Young-Laplace equation) , sessile drop method (contact angle or shape analysis) , pendant drop method (surface tension or shape analysis) , oscillating drop method (oscillation frequency or damping ratio) , drop weight method (drop size or drop time) , levitation method (electromagnetic force or shape analysis) , and so on. It also presents the models and correlations that are used to predict surface tension for various compositions, temperatures, pressures, atmospheres, and phases. such as Butler equation (surface excess concentration or Gibbs adsorption isotherm) , Sahoo equation (surface excess concentration or Gibbs adsorption isotherm) , Gaye equation (surface excess concentration or Gibbs adsorption isotherm) [^22 , and so on.

### Chapter 5: Electrical conductivity of molten slags and glasses

This chapter deals with the electrical conductivity of molten slags and glasses, which is a vital property for their electrical phenomena and electrochemical reactions. Electrical conductivity is a measure of the ability of a substance to conduct electric current. Electrical conductivity affects the electric heating, electromagnetic stirring, electroslag remelting, electroslag refining, electrochemical extraction, electrochemical refining, electrochemical synthesis, and slag-metal reactions of molten slags and glasses.

The chapter reviews the factors affecting electrical conductivity, such as composition, temperature, pressure, atmosphere, phase structure (liquid or glass), crystallization (homogeneous or heterogeneous), oxidation state, slag basicity, slag acidity, and so on. It also describes the measurement techniques and data that are available for electrical conductivity, such as direct current method (four-terminal or two-terminal) , alternating current method (impedance spectroscopy or admittance spectroscopy) , electromagnetic induction method (Faraday's law or mutual inductance) , and so on. It also presents the models and correlations that are used to predict electrical conductivity for various compositions, temperatures, pressures, atmospheres, and phases. such as Arrhenius equation (activation energy or pre-exponential factor) , Nernst-Einstein equation (ionic mobility or ionic concentration) , Debye-HÃ¼ckel-Onsager equation (ionic interaction or ionic strength) , Wagner equation (electronic mobility or electronic concentration) , and so on.

### Chapter 6: Optical properties of molten slags and glasses

This chapter deals with the optical properties of molten slags and glasses, which are essential for their optical phenomena and optical measurements. Optical properties are the characteristics of a substance that determine its interaction with electromagnetic radiation, such as light. Optical properties affect the radiative heat transfer, optical pyrometry, optical thermometry, optical spectroscopy, optical microscopy, optical fiber communication, and slag-metal reactions of molten slags and glasses.

The chapter reviews the factors affecting optical properties, such as composition, temperature, pressure, atmosphere, phase structure (liquid or glass), crystallization (homogeneous or heterogeneous), oxidation state, slag basicity, slag acidity, and so on. It also describes the measurement techniques and data that are available for optical properties, such as reflectance method (specular or diffuse) , transmittance method (direct or diffuse) , absorbance method (Beer-Lambert law or Kubelka-Munk theory) , refractive index method (Snell's law or Fresnel equations) , emissivity method (Kirchhoff's law or Planck's law) , and so on. It also presents the models and correlations that are used to predict optical properties for various compositions, temperatures, pressures, atmospheres, and phases. such as Lorentz-Lorenz equation (refractive index or polarizability) , Drude equation (refractive index or free electron density) , Kramers-Kronig equation (refractive index or absorption coefficient) , Sellmeier equation (refractive index or dispersion relation) , and so on.

## Conclusion

In conclusion, this book is a valuable reference for anyone who is interested in the physicochemical properties of molten slags and glasses. The book provides a comprehensive overview of the theoretical and experimental aspects of various properties, such as thermodynamics, viscosity, density, surface tension, electrical conductivity, and optical properties. The book also provides numerous examples, data, tables, figures, diagrams, equations, and references that illustrate the applications of these properties to various metallurgical systems and processes. The book is written in a clear and concise style that is easy to follow and understand. The book is suitable for students, researchers, engineers, and practitioners who work in the fields of metallurgy and materials science.

## FAQs

Q: How can I download this book?

A: You can download this book from various online sources, such as

__Amazon.com__, Google Books , WorldCat , etc. You can also find this book in some libraries or bookstores.

Q: How can I cite this book?

A: You can cite this book using the following format: Turkdogan, E. T. (1983). Physicochemical properties of molten slags and glasses. London: The Metals Society.

Q: How can I contact the author of this book?

A: Unfortunately, the author of this book, E. T. Turkdogan, passed away in 2006. However, you can contact his former colleagues or students who may have worked with him or learned from him.

Q: How can I learn more about the physicochemical properties of molten slags and glasses?

A: You can learn more about the physicochemical properties of molten slags and glasses by reading other books, journals, articles, reports, dissertations, etc. that are related to this topic. You can also attend conferences, workshops, seminars, courses, etc. that are organized by various academic or professional organizations that deal with this topic.

Q: How can I apply the physicochemical properties of molten slags and glasses to my own research or work?

A: You can apply the physicochemical properties of molten slags and glasses to your own research or work by using the models, methods, data, and correlations that are provided in this book or other sources. You can also design and conduct your own experiments or simulations to measure or predict these properties for your specific systems or processes.

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